Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete - a corkscrew shaped- bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi which is transmitted to humans by the deer tick. After the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria has entered into the bloodstream, it can infect and inflame many different types of tissues, resulting in a very diverse set of symptoms.
Ticks can transmit many other diseases to humans in addition to Lyme disease. The tick carries an abundance of bacteria, viruses and parasites (up to 90 different species) on its mouth parts and salivatory glands. In fact, there are many co-infections that can be transmitted by ticks that can complicate the diagnosis of Lyme disease, treatment and recovery. These co-infections include: Bartonella Henselae, Chlamydia Pneumonia, Babebiosis, Tularemia, Anaplasmosis , Mycoplasma Pneumonia, Ehrlichiosis, Streptococcus, Yersinia, Borrelia miyamotoi, Brucellose, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma penetrans, Rickettsiaw, Helicobacter pylori, Coxiella Burnetii, Staphylococcus, Aspergillus niger, Dientamoeba Fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Colorando tick-fever, Coxsackie Virus A, Coxsackie Virus B, Cytomegalovirus (Herpes family), Epstein Barr, HPV, Parvo virus, Toxoplasmose, Tularenia and Rocky Mountain Fever
Lyme disease is frequently characterized by the early symptoms of a red, circular, bulls-eye rash radiating from the tick bite, followed by flu-like symptoms and joint pain. However, studies have shown that less than 50% of people display the characteristic mark, with many people also not recalling that they have ever been bitten by a tick.
There are three stages of Lyme disease. The first stage is mild, and can be dealt with a simple short course of antibiotics. Second stage Lyme disease often has to be treated by a longer course of antibiotics often in combination. The third and most serious stage which may consequate extreme neurological and reumatological complaints and skin abnormalities can be treated by antibiotics in combination or by intravenous antibiotic treatment.